Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Babar was born on 1483 AD on 14th of feb in a place called Fergana a part of Central Asia . It is a part of eastern Uzbekistan now. Andijan was the capital of Fergana . His father UMAR SHAIK MIRZA was the kng of Fergana and a descendent of TIMUR the Turco-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia . Hs mother wasa descendent of the great CHENGISKHAN .
AS A RULER:
Babar became king at the young age of 11 years and 4 months after his father was killed in a fight . He was a sharp minded person and was well versed persian and turkish language .He had the ability of reading people’s character easily.
He ruled Fergana for 9 years form (1494-1505) . He secured Fergana from its enemies and set his eyes on SAMARKAND the capital of Timur which he believed belonged to him traditionally .He tried to capture Samarkand many times and also succeded two times but at the heavy cost of losing Fergana . At 1502 AD he fled from Fergana and lived in exile for two years .
CAPTURE OF KABUL :
BABAR rushed towards Kabul in 1504 AD and captured it . There he increased his military power many folds and worked hard for gaining the trust of his subjects . He honoured himself as PADSHAH in 1507 AD . In 1510 AD Babar captured Samarkand for the third tme only to lose it again . Babar returned to Kabul ruled it upto 1526 AD . He learned many war tactics and also about different weapons from the neighbouring USBEGS , MONGOLS , AFGHANS AND TURKS .
Dr. A.L Srivastava says that “The wars Babar fought at young age honed his qualities on TOLERANCE , PATIENCE , BRAVERY etc but also shaped him as a ruler who did’nt care about country’s economics .( which will be solved by his successor AKBAR)”.
EYES ON INDIA( Hindustan ):
When Babur was the king of Kabul , he waged war on Hind 4 times to experiment and to know the strengths of the kings. His first war was 0n 1519 AD when he waged war on BAJAUR the land of YUSUFZAI tribe and captured it . He also occupied BHERA . Babur then returned to Kabul . Babur again attacked India at the same year entering via Khyber Pass but had to return back due to revolts in Badakhshan .
In 1523 AD , he undertook his third expendition.After recovering Bajaur and Bhera he
captured, SIALKOT . He returned to Kabul to tackle the disturbances in Kandahar and in 1522 AD , he acquired Kandahar by treachery. Babar was now free from complication at home and in the event of an invasion of India, he felt secure in the year, as the formidable fort of Kandahar was now in his possession.
At this time, he received information from Daulat Khan Lodi , Governor of the Punjab, who sought his help in making himself master of the Punjab in return for a promise to recognise Babar as his sovereign. Babar readily accepted the invitation and proceeded to Lahore in 1524. The reigning Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi had defeated Daulat Khan and the latter had gone into exile. Babar defeated the Afghan garrisons, captured Lahore and proceeded to Dipalpur, where Daulat Khan joined him. He kept the Punjab for himself and bestowed Jalandar to Daulat Khan, Sultanpur to Dilawar Khan, the son of Daulat Khan, and Dipalpur to Alam Khan Lodi, an uncle of Sultan Ibrahim. Alam Khan Lodi was a candidate for the throne of Delhi and was seeking Babar’s help in his proposed enterprise against his nephew, Sultan Ibrahim, Then, he returned to Kabul after making the necessary arrangement.
Soon Daulat Khan captured Sultanpur from his son and
drove away Alam Khan form Dipalpur; but he could not re-occupy the whole of the Punjab. But Daulat Khan defeated an army sent against the rebels and invaders. Alam Khan
fled to Kabul and entered into a treaty with Babar. He returned to India carrying Babar’s instructions to the Mughal garrisons. But he was reduced by Daulat Khan. Both of
them marched towards Delhi but were defeated by Ibrahim Lodi. When
Babar heard this news, he finally decided to embark on an expendition to Hindustan.
THE FIRST BATTLE OF PANIPAT:
Babar set out in November 1525 AD and was joined on the way by his son Humayun with troops from Badakshan . Daulat Khan was seized and brought before Babar. He was
sent to Bhera to be imprisoned but died on the way to that place. Alam Khan came to Babar in a miserable condition. The deciseive battle was fought on 21 April 1526 AD on the plain of Panipat the historic site where the throne of India has been thrice won.
Though Ibrahim Lodi’s army was large, it was defeated by Babar’s force. The Battle lasted only half-a-day from 9o’ clock in the morning till noon. The superior strategy and generalship of Babar won the day. Ibrahim Lodi was killed fighting bravely till his last breath. The Delhi army broke up in fight. The military power of the Lodies was completely shattered. The sovereignty of Hindustan departed from the Afghan race and passed to the Mughals whowere to retain it for more than two centuries, with about 15 years break (1540-1555) during the Sur interregnum.
The Turko-Afghan rulling class in India had become degenerate and its supremacy was in danger. New blood and vigour were injected into the foreign ruling class.The Mughal dynasty gave to the country a series of successful rulers. Sultan Ibrahim’s army was a heterogenous force but the Mughal army had been wielded into a
homogenous unit by Babar. Babar was the master of artillery consisting of big guns and small muskets. He was the master of a highly evolved system of warfare. Ibrahim was only
a proud and an experienced youth. As a result of these reasons, Babar won a splendid victory over the Afghans. Immediately after the victory at Panipat, Babar sent a detachment of his army under Humayun to capture Agra and another detachment to
capture Delhi. He proceeded to Agra and took up residence in Ibrahim’s palace. Humayun presented to Babar the famous Kohinoor diamond which the former had received as a present from the royal family of Gwalior but Babar gave it back to his son. He
treated Ibrahim’s relatives very generously. He gave enormous presents to his generals and soldiers. Even the inhabitants of Kabul received one silver coin each. Babar
kept little for himself and thus earned the nick name “Qlanda” (begging friar). He was content with fame.
LAST DAYS OF THE PADSHAH:
Babar now styled himself as Padshah or Emperor. Humayun who had been posted as governor of Badakshan left his charge and returned to Agra without his father’s
permission. He was instructed to go to his jagir, Sambhal. He fell ill there.
Babar in his prayers for the recovery of his son offered his life. He fell ill
and died on the 25 th of December, 1503 AD. His body was interned at Arambagh in Agra from where it was subsequently carried to Kabul and buried at at beautiful spot which had
been selected by Babar himself for the purpose.